YR. España desde el saco de Roma a la muerte de Agila
410 Aug. 24-26 Saqueo de Roma por los godos. Alarico se hace con un inmenso botín y de una multitud de cautivos, entre ellos la princesa Gala Placidia, hermana de los emperadores Arcadio y Honorio. Se dirige luego al sur de Italia con la intención de llevar a su pueblo al África latina, granero del Imperio.
410 The Suebic kingdom is established. It would live until 584 after a century of slow decline. They settled in the cities of Braga (which would become the Suebic capital until 439), Astorga, and Lugo. The Suevi, under their king, Hermeric, would spend the next 27 years (411-438) plundering the Galicians of food and valuables.
411 Los bárbaros se repartieron por sorteo las provincias donde cada pueblo habría de habitar: Gallaecia correspondió a los vándalos asdingos y suevos; Lusitania y Cartaginense a los alanos; la Bética a los vándalos silingos.
411 Sept. 18 After Honorius's generals Constantius and Ulfilas had taken Constantine prisoner and sent him to Honorius in Italy, Constantine's head is displayed on a stake at Ravenna.
412 Maximus's reign in Hispania lasted until this year. The barbarians had ceased fighting in 411 and turned to peace after dividing up the spanish provinces. Five years of peace and stability followed. The defeat and suicide of his patron Gerontius made the end inevitable. Orontius tells us that Maximus was deposed by the Gallic soldiers, who then moved on to Africa. Turned to peace after dividing up the spanish provinces.
414 Jan. En una ceremonia celebrada en Narbona (ciudad que había capturado el año anterior) Ataúlfo (cuñado de Alarico) contrajo matrimonio con Gala Placidia, hermanastra de Honorio, que había sido capturada en 410.
415 Sept. Athaulf is assassinated, like his successor. He had made Barcelona, in the Tarraconensis, his headquarters for a brief time while driven from the Romans. El bloqueo marítimo impuesto por Constancio, emperador del Imperio de occidente, a Narbona le había obligado a Ataúlfo a irse a Barcelona y a cancelar su plan de llevar a su pueblo a África.
416 Early Or late 415. The Visigoths are recognized finally by the Romans as allies and are supplied with food after a treaty is agreed upon between Constantius and Wallia, the new king of the Goths, and by which also Gala Placidia is to be returned.
416 Late And until 418. The Goths fought against the Siling Vandals and Alans in Lusitania and Baetica, virtually eliminating the Alans before Constantius called off the Gothic offensive, recalling them to Gaul. Wallia's campaing was immediately successful, and the Alan king Addax was killed in the fighting. The campaign did not extend into Gallaecia because the main objective was the reconquest and revival of the diocesan capital at Merida and the administrative restoration of the imperial system.
418 The Visigoths are allowed by the Romans to settle in sections of southern Gaul, with the obligation to render military aid to the emperor. Así nació el Reino visigodo-tolosano que pervivió durante 90 años, con capital en Toulouse. Walia murió a los pocos meses y le sucedió Teodorico I.
419 Probablemente en la segunda mitad del año se originó la segunda usurpación del antiguo cliente de Gerontius, Maximus, posiblemente con el apoyo de los bárbaros de la Gallaecia.
Hermeric new Suevic king in Gallaecia.
420 The comes hispaniarum Asterius attacked the Vandals in Gallaecia and forced them to break off a war with the Sueves that had begun in 419 for reasons unknown. The Vandal king Gunderic gave up the siege of Hermeric, the Sueve king and attacked the Romans instead, chasing Asterius into Baetica. Now they were at large in the heartland of the Spanish diocese instead of confined to distant Gallaecia.
421 Jan. In the previous year Asterius won a campaign against Maximus the usurper, who was sent this time to Ravenna, where he was led in triumph during the celebration of Honorius's 30 years on the throne.
421 Feb. Constantius becomes co-emperor with Honorius.
421 Constancio, co-emperador de occidente nombrado por Honorio y marido de Gala Placidia, falleció. Gala Placidia hubo de buscar refugio con sus hijos en Constantinopla, junto con su sobrino Teodosio II.
c. 421 The Asdings, a branch of the Vandals, left Gallaetia overrunning the province of Baetica, seizing Seville and Cartagena and even raiding the Balearic Islands.
422 The magister militum Castinus was sent to Spain to attack the Vandals in Baetica, leading both a Roman army and a force of Gothic auxiliaries. The Roman general Boniface, hero of the Gothic war of 413 was to go too but a quarrel with Castinus caused him to desert and go to Africa instead. Castinus's Gothic auxiliaries deserted him and he was defeated by the Vandals and forced to flee to Tarragona.
423 Emperor Honorius died. His primicerius notatorium Iohannes seized the western throne, a usurpation in which Castinus himself had a hand, and this meant disturbance at the heart of the empire.
425 Valentiniano III, hijo de Gala Placidia, tras la muerte en 423 de Honorio, es emperador del Imperio occidental romano. Struggles between Aëtius and Boniface for predominance at the court of Valentinian in Italy.
The Vandals from their base in Baetica sent expeditions to the Balearics and Mauretania Tingitana, and pillaged Cartagena. In the same year they sacked Seville. All the raids were most probably seaborne.
428 Sevilla es tomada por los vándalos de nuevo. Durante la toma el rey Gundérico muere. He is succeeded by his brother Gaiseric.
Hydatius is elected bishop of Aquae Flaviae, modern Chaves in the north of Portugal. He spent the rest of his life as a man of great local standing, and ambassador to the general Aëtius in Gaul, and a director of the episcopal campaign against Priscillianists in Spain.
429 May The Vandal king Gaiseric led his people -estimated at 80,000- across the strait of Gibraltar to north Africa. Hispania queda libre de vándalos. El reino que crearían perduraría hasta su destrucción por los ejércitos de Justiniano a mediados del siglo VI.
430 Razzia de los suevos por la Gallaecia media. Los galaicos rechazaron a los suevos que tuvieron que hacer la paz pero que romperían al año siguiente.
430 Spring Siege of Hippo by the Vandals who had moved from Hispania to Africa.
431 Bishop Idatius, induced by the plunder of Gallaetia by the Suevi, travels to Gaul to seek aid from the Roman General Aetius, but he could do nothing. Al año siguiente regresaría acompañado por el conde Censorio en calidad de legado de Aecio, pero sería apresado por el rey suevo Rékhila.
438 Hermeric, king of the Suebi, became ill. Having annexed the entirety of Galicia, he made peace with the local Hispano-Roman population. In 438, his son Rechila became king. Rechila saw an opportunity for expansion and began pushing to other areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The same year, Rechila campaigned in Baetica oriental defeating one Andevotus and capturing his treasure, he was probably a powerful landowner or local aristocrat in Baetica.
Until 439. Full-scale war between the Goths of Theodoric and the imperial government in Gaul. At the end Theodoric remained a close ally of Aëtius becoming the main weapon of imperial policy in Spain in a series of campaigns which involved the Goths deeper in peninsular affairs.
439 The Suevi invaded Lusitania and took Mérida, making it the new capital of the Suevi kingdom.
441 Sevilla cayó también en poder de Rékhila. He brought Baetica and Carthaginiensis under his potestas, that is, he exacted tribute periodically out of them. The imperial administration in these provinces stopped. There is evidence that parts of provincial society in these provinces cooperated with the Suevic occupiers for their own ends.
El maestro de las milicias, Asturio, fue enviado a Hispania para combatir a los “bagaudas” de la Tarraconense, y dio muerte a gran número de ellos, en el valle medio del Ebro, donde seguían produciéndose incursiones vasconas.
443 The Roman general Merobaudes smashed a group of Bacaudae based at Araceli, in the Basque Country. The Bacaudae were well-organized bands of bandits.
446 The Romans would dispatch Vitus, a magister militum with a mixed army of Romans and Goths, to the provinces of Baetica and Carthaginiensis in an attempt to subdue the Suevi and restore imperial administration in Spain. Rechila, marching from his base in Lusitania, defeated Vitus and the Goths, and no more imperial attempts would be made to retake Spain.
448 Rechila, king of the Suebi, died in Mérida, leaving the crown to his son, Rechiar. Rechiar would become the first Germanic king to become a Catholic Christian, as well as the first barbarian king to mint coins in his own name.
448 Late Rechiar went to Toulouse, where he married a daughter of the Gothic king Theodoric in an attempt to improve the relationship between the two peoples.
449 Feb. Rechiar returned to Spain with his bride, and on his way attacked certain Basques.
449 July Rechiar is back in Toulouse. His march coincided with a renewd outburst of Bacaudic activity: The Bacaudic leader Basilius invaded the small town of Tarazona and killed some imperial soldiers who had taken shelter in the church there. Rechiar joined him in pillaging the territory of Zaragoza. Lérida was entered and some of its population seized.
453 Theodoric II, king of the Visigoths until 466.
454 Indicio del “romanismo” de Teodorico II fue la mortífera expedición contra los bagaudas de la Tarraconense llevada a cabo por el príncipe Federico, hermano del monarca tolosano.
454 Sept. 21 Asesinato de Aecio.
455 March 16 Asesinato de Valentiniano III emperador de occidente. Petronius Maximus declared himself Augustus the next day.
455 May 31 The Vandal king Gaiseric used revenge for Valentinian as a pretext to sail on Rome and sack the city. Maximus was killed on this day as he tried to flee.
455 July 9 Avitus is acclaimed at Arles as new emperor, the Gallic army is behind his proclamation.
455 Rechiar, king of the Suebi, invaded Tarraconensis, which was the last portion of the Iberia still under Roman rule. Atacan la Cartaginiense, que de nuevo en fecha desconocida había pasado a manos de los romanos.
456 The Visigoths of Theodoric II return to Spain, after helping defeat the Huns of Attila at the Catalaunian Fields, with instructions from the emperor to destroy the Suebi. They would easily defeat the Suevi and kill their king in the battle of Astúrica (Astorga) -5 de octubre.
456 Oct. 5 Tras haber sido invadida la Tarraconense por los suevos de Rékhiario, y con el beneplácito del emperador Avito, Theoderic II defeated and captured Rechiar near the river Urbicus. After the execution of Rechiar, Theoderic continued his war on the Suebi and, in less than a year, the Goths had removed and occupied Lustinia, Baetica, Carthaginiesis, and parts of southern Galicia, thus confining the Suevi back in the far northwestern corner of Galicia.
456 Oct. El emperador Avito, privado del apoyo godo por la expedición a España, es depuesto en Italia por Ricimer. He was murdered soon afterward by the general Majorian
456 Oct. El rey de los visigodos, Teodorico II, tras invernar en Mérida, tomaría el camino de regreso a las Galias dejando tras de sí un reguero de violencia: devastando Astorga y Palencia.
456 Oct. 28 Braga, la capital del reino suevo, cae en manos de los visigodos.
456 Dec. Rechiar, the Suevic king is taken to Braga where he was executed by the Theoderic.
457 April Theoderic set off from Spain to Toulouse, leaving behind him garrisons to enforce his settlements. A number of cities and fortresses were sacked by the Gothic garrison in formerly Suevic territory. Note: We begin to see patterns of local notables in competition with small Suevic forces and the Spanish representatives of the Gothic king at Toulouse.
The army acclaimed Majorian as Augustus, but he did not formally take the purple until 28 December.
457 Dec. 28 Majorian took the purple, but so long as the Italian situation was unstable Majorian himself stayed out of Gaul and his throne was not secure.
457 El pueblo suevo se dividió en 2 facciones. Los de Madras hicieron una correría devastadora en la Lusitania, con matanza de romanos, y entrando también en Lisboa. La región de Gallaecia ribereña del Duero, también fue depredada.
Asesinato por parte de los suevos del rector y de algunos notables romanos de Lugo. Además Remismundo devastó lugares de la región de Orense y de las partes marítimas de Lugo capturando a Hidacio -su obispo, que sufrió cautiverio durante tres meses.
458 Majorian's general Aegidus moved against the Burgundian king Gundioc for taking over much of the territory of Lyons, though with the active consent of the citizens. Theodoric was forced to support his Burgundian ally.
Theodoric sent an army to Baetica to hold the south.
Sabinus, the exiled bishop of Seville, returned to Spain from Gaul and reclaimed his see from the man who had displaced him around the time of the Suevic conquest twenty years before.
459 Theodoric was defeated in battle for supporting his Burgundian ally against Majorian. Only then did the Gothic king give Majorian the rule of the Spanish diocese that he had reconquered on behalf of Avitus three years before.
460 Easter The Sueves resident in Lugo massacred the Hispano-Roman neighbors during this festive season.
460 Nepociano es enviado a la península por el emperador Mayoriano. Se puso al mando, junto con el general visigodo Sunierico, de un ejército godo que invadió Galicia, a la sazón en poder de los suevos, y derrotó a éstos en Lucus Augusti (Lugo).
Astorga es reconstruida por el obispo Toribio, que hizo de ella su sede episcopal.
461 Aug. Muerte del emperador Mayoriano. He was on his way to Spain to embark on a maritime campaign against the Vandals in Africa, but traitors warned the Vandals of his Spanish preparations and struck preemptively by burning the fleet. Majorian retraced his steps to Gaul and on the way back he was arrested and executed by the patrician Ricimer at Dertona in the north of Italy.
462 Sunericus and Nepotianus, the Gothic generals sent to Spain are recalled by Theodoric. Nepotianus was replaced by Arborio, pero esta vez éste estará a las órdenes no ya del emperador de Roma sino de Teodorico II, rey de los visigodos. Fin de la Hispania Romana.
464 Los suevos entraron en Coimbra y expoliaron a la noble familia de los Cantabri.
464 Remismundo es reconocido como único rey de todos los suevos. Remismundo envió inmediatamente a Teodorico II una legación que correspondió con otra embajada enviando una princesa visigoda.
466 Conversión de los suevos paganos al arianismo: The Suebi remained mostly pagan and their subjects Priscillianist until an Arian missionary from the kingdom of Toulouse named Ajax, sent by the Visigothic king Theodoric II at the request of the Suebic unifier Remismund, converted them in 466 and established a lasting Arian church which dominated the people until their conversion to Catholicism in the 560s.
Euric gains the Visigothic throne by murdering his brother. From the capital in Toulouse he rules the most powerful Barbarian state in the late fifth century.
467 Los suevos asaltaron de nuevo Coimbra, capturaron a los vecinos, derribaron viviendas y murallas y asolaron los alrededores.
En 466 la Plebs Aunonense (probablemente de la comarca de Tuy) había enviado su propia legación a la corte visigoda de Tolosa; la presidía un indígena llamado Opilio, para conseguir la paz con los suevos en las luchas que habían empezado en 465. Por fin ahora pudo conseguirse la paz.
468 The Sueves of Remismund took Lisbon after the Hispano-Roman Lusidius, one of its leading citizens, betrayed the city to them. Late in the same year Remismund sent him to Italy as an envoy to the new emperor Anthemius.
469 El obispo gallego Hidacio concluye su Crónica. Para denominar a los romanos que vivían en Hispania utiliza los términos galaicos, béticos o cartaginenses, según la provincia a la que pertenecieran.
470 King Euric of the Visigoths conquers southern Gallaecia and Lusitania from the Suevi.
471 Euric crosses the Rhone and defeated an imperial army somewhere beyond Arles, a conflict provoked by Anthemius.
472 July Perdió la vida el emperador de occidente Antemio tras el asalto a Roma por parte de las tropas del jefe bárbaro y patricio Ricimero.
475 Euric follwed his campaign by taking Arles, then Marseilles, but then returned them to the control of the emperor Nepos in exchange for the formal cession of the Auvergne. But when Nepos was driven from Italy, Euric retook the coastal cities of Narbonensis
El rey visigodo Eurico, olvidándose de su condición de federado del Imperio, lanza un ataque contra la Roma Hispánica en dos frentes: la zona central del valle del Ebro y al sur de Tarragona. Se concluye con el paso a manos visigodas de la última zona de la península que quedaba en poder de los romanos. La ocupación de la Tarraconense justifica el título de “primer rey de España” que se le ha asignado a Eurico. La Tarraconense era el eslabón entre el Reino de Tolosa en las Galias y Mérida, reducto avanzado visigodo.
483 Eurico ordenó que se restaurara en Mérida el puente sobre el Guadiana, obra que realizaron conjuntamente el obispo de la ciudad, Zenón, y el oficial godo de la localidad, el conde Salla.
484 Gothic king Euric died at Arles and his son Alaric II succeeded him at Toulouse.
La población católica de la ciudad marítima de Tipassa -en la Argelia actual- se trasladó a tierra española, huyendo de la persecucuón del rey vándalo Hunérico.
487 En 486-487 Clodoveo, el joven monarca franco (481-511) derrota al rex romanorum Siagrio y se anexiona sus dominios entre el Sena y el Somme, último reducto independiente romano en las Galias.
496 Levantamiento anti-gótico en la Tarraconense dirigido por un personaje hispano llamado Burdunelo. La rebelión fue sofocada al año siguiente y Burdunelo fue entregado por sus secuaces a los godos y llevado a Toulouse donde fue quemado al fuego en el interior de un toro de bronce. Esta rebelión provocaría que se incrementase la presencia goda en Hispania, lo que quizás tendría la contrapartida de la debilitación goda en Aquitania.
498 Los francos toman Burdeos y capturan al duque Suatrio, comandante militar visigodo. La ciudad sería recuperada por Alarico II.
499 Dec. 25 De 498, 499 o 500. Clodoveo se bautiza como católico, lo cual le concede mayor prestigio entre la mayoritaria población galo-romana, comenzando por sus obispos, quienes eran sus indiscutibles jefes naturales.
506 Alarico II promulgó una versión abreviada del Codex Theodosianus de los romanos, la Lex Romana Visigothorum, cuya influencia sobreviviría al propio reino visigodo, y aprobada por una representación de obispos católicos y notables galo-romanos. La intención: ganarse la adhesión de la población del reino tolosano.
Los godos se apoderaron de Tortosa, donde se había hecho fuerte un rebelde llamado Pedro, quien fue muerto y su cabeza llevada a Zaragoza para escarmiento.
506 Sept. 10 Alarico II autorizó el importante concilio católico de Agde con los obispos retornados del exilio que él les había impuesto y bajo la presidencia de Cesario de Arlés. No Spaniards were counted among the numbers of bishops.
507 Alaric II (484-507) king of the Visigoths is defeated and killed by the Franks under Merovingian king Clovis, at the battle of Vouille (Vogladum) near Poitiers. His kingdom of Toulouse came to an end. Clovis and Anastasius I of the Byzantine Empire agreed that each would attack the Goths from their own side. The Franks crossed the Loire river. Clovis himself killed Alaric II. It may have been that huge defections in the field, from optimates and Gothic nobles was the cause of defeat, as increased royal power in the clan of the Balths was eroding the other clans' independence. High ranking families from the Goths had been sifting away to "distant" and derelict Spanish regions across the Pyrenees. The success at Vouillé allowed the Franks to control the southwestern part of France, and capture Toulouse. Alaric's illegitimate son Gesalec tried to organize a counterstrike at Narbonne, but he was deposed and ultimately killed when Narbonne was taken by Burgundian allies of the Franks, who held it until 511. The Franks might have pushed farther, had Theodoric the Great of the Ostrogoths not intervened. After his success in this battle the Byzantine emperor, Anastasius, made Clovis a consul.
507 Winter Frankish king Clovis retired to Bordeaux, after taking possession of the Gothic royal treasure, and spent there the coming winter. Clovis's hold on the formerly Gothic lands was precarious and only in the following decade was the region brought firmly under Frankish control. The new Visigothic king, Theodoric, made his residence at Barcelona controlled Spain through his proxy and military leader in Spain Theudis.
526 Aug. 30 Death of Theodoric. Amalaric was finally enabled to rule on his own account. The kingdoms of Visigoths and Ostrogoths were divided, Amalaric taking the territory west of the Rhone, Athalaric that to the east.
531 Amalaric (510-531) is murdered in Barcelona in December after fleeing from Narbonne. He had married Clovis's daughter Clotilde, establishing friendly relations with his northern neighbors, but his ill treatment of his wife and his attempts to force her to accept Arianism caused the Franks of Childebert of Paris -brother of Clotilde- to renew their attack. His followers were expelled from Narbonne and joined Theudis, who now became king of the Visigoths in turn.
534 Byzantine reconquest of the Balearic Islands.
Pérdida de Ceuta , ocupada por las tropas bizantinas.
Los francos ponen fin a la existencia del reino burgundio independiente con una victoria sobre Godomaro.
536 Conquista bizantina del reino vándalo del norte de África.
El ejército imperial bizantino al mando de Belisario desembarca en Italia comenzando el ataque contra el reino ostrogodo con que se iniciaba la terrible guerra gótica que se prolongaría hasta 553. Los francos oprovecharon la favorable coyuntura para apoderarse de la Provenza.
541 Invasión franca contra el noreste de la península ibérica. Dirigida por los reyes hermanos Childeberto I de París y Clotario I de Soissons. Penetraron por Roncesvalles y Pamplona. Sitiaron Zaragoza durante 49 días sin conseguir apoderarse de la ciudd. Su objetivo fue simplemente la depredación y el saqueo. La provincia Tarraconense quedó en buena parte devastada y experimentó una fuerte despoblación seguida de la peste bubónica al año siguiente en toda la península. El ejército ostrogodo mandado por Theudiselo les cortó la retirada y tuvieron que pagar un gran precio para poder regresar a su patria.
542 May Llega a Constantinopla la peste provocando una catástrofe de proporciones inmensas. Duró hasta finales del verano. Las víctimas fueron más de 300.000 (40-50% de la población). La peste llegaría a España y causaría millares de víctimas en Toledo.
547 Expedición del jefe ostrogodo Theudis contra Ceuta que terminó en desastre. Fueron sorprendidos por los bizantinos que les cercaron por tierra y por mar aniquilando a todos. El propio rey Theudis fue asesinado poco después en palacio. Le sucedió Theudiselo, que duraría un año y siete meses y sería muerto en Sevilla durante un banquete.
549 Una poderosa plataforma político-militar de Mérida tomó la iniciativa de aclamar como rey a uno de sus miembros, el magnate Agila (549-555). Éste se enemistó con las grandes urbes que vivían una existencia autónoma gobernadas por aristocracias locales de raigambre hispano-romana.
552 Summer Guerra Civil Goda en Hispania > invasión bizantina: Otro magnate, Atanagildo, se levantó en Sevilla contra Agila y solicitó al imperio bizantino ayuda. Desde el puesto cercano de Ceuta los bizantinos enviaron ahora una expedición al mando del patricio Félix Liberio. El ataque de Agila contra Sevilla fracasó degenerando en guerra civil entre los dos magnates pretendientes a la corona visigoda.
552 Justiniano, titular bizantino del imperio romano de Oriente, logró reconquistar una parte del sureste de la península, incluidas las ciudades de Malaca, Cartago Nova y Corduba, que permanecerían en manos del imperio durante veinte años.
553 Guerra gótica. Narsés, del bando bizantino, aplastó a orillas del Sarno a Teía, el último rey ostrogodo y las hordas alemanas y francas que habían acudido en su ayuda. Al mismo tiempo la presencia bizantina en Hispania se incrementó.
555 March Los godos que militaban en el bando de Agila se revolvieron contra su propio rey y le dieron muerte en Mérida y reconocieron a Atanagildo como nuevo rey (555-567).

 

"Es cierto que el Romano es libre de hacer todo lo que quiera. Pero también lo es que tiene que soportar las consecuencias de sus actos. No importa que se haya equivocado, que le hayan engañado o incluso forzado: un hombre no se deja forzar: etiamsi coactus, attamen voluit. Es libre; pero si distraído, imprudente o atontado, prometió pagar una determinada cantidad y no puede pagarla, se convierte en esclavo de su acreedor."

Rudolph von Ihering

“Slavery, protection, and monopoly find defenders, not only in those who profit by them, but in those who suffer by them.”

Frédéric Bastiat

On the true nature of the Castro Revolution in Cuba: "The revolution was a cover for committing atrocities without the slightest vestige of guilt ... we were young and irresponsible. We were pirates. We formed our own caste ... we belonged to and believed in nothing -no religion, no flag, no morality or principle. It's fortunate we didn't win, because if we had, we would have drowned the continent in barbarism."

Jorge Masetti -In the Pirate's Den

La anarquía, es decir, la ausencia de fuerza estatal, no es una forma de Estado, y cualquiera que acabe con ella por el medio que sea, el usurpador nacional o el conquistador extranjero, rinde un servicio a la sociedad. Es un salvador, un bienhechor, porque la forma más insoportable de Estado es la ausencia de Estado.


Rudolph von Ihering

"El envidioso está afligido no solo por sus males propios, sino por los bienes de los demás."  -Hipias

[la norma de conducta de los progres] "No hacer nada que alguien pueda envidiarme." -Hipasos

NINOTCHKA,

O EL DISCRETO DESENCANTO CON EL SOCIALISMO 

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Seguimos a la espera de la reedición de este importante libro del gran escritor español José Pla

Historia de la Segunda República.

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También a la espera de este importante libro del genial Rafael Abella.

Finales de enero, 1939, Barcelona cambia de piel

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2012 © CREOWEBS. Diseñamos y creamos. !!!