YR. -desde la primer oleada de migraciones celtas al año 0
1000 B.C. c.1000 B.C. 1st wave of Celtic migrations to Iberia, of the Urnfield culture (Oestrimni, speakers of the Proto-Celtic language).
800 B.C. c.800 B.C. The Phoenicians found Gades, Cádiz.
700 B.C. Desde principios del siglo VII a. de C. Cartago disponía de una base militar avanzada en Ebussus (Ibiza) y estaba decidida a impedir con sus barcos de guerra el acceso al estrecho. Hasta mediados del siglo III a.C. Se limitarían a explotar los recursos económicos de la península. Se atribuye a Aníbal el proyecto de transformar el antiguo sistema mercantil de España en una ocupación del territorio que permitiese una explotación directa de las riquezas.
630 B.C. Un marino de Samos llamado Kolaios atravesó el estrecho y llegó a Tartessos. Al regresar contó con exageraciones la opulencia del rey Argantonios.
236 B.C. The Carthaginian General Hamilcar Barca enters Iberia with his armies through Gadir.
229 B.C. Amílcar sitia Elche (Hélice), cuando un caudillo oretano llamado Orisson lo derrota utilizando la estratagema de cargar con una manada de bueyes aterrorizados porque llevaban en las astas haces de leña encendidos. Amilcar muere en esta escaramuza contra los iberos oretanos. He is succeeded in command of the Carthaginian armies in Iberia by his son-in-law Hasdrubal, who extends the newly acquired empire by skillful diplomacy, and consolidates it by the foundation of Carthago Nova (Cartagena) as the capital of the new province.
226 B.C. Hasdrubal, who rules relatively independently of Carthage, signs the Ebro treaty with Rome, which fix the river Ebro as the boundary between the two powers.
221 B.C. Hasdrubal is killed by a Celtic assassin. Hannibal Barca, Hamilcar Barca's older son, is acclaimed commander-in-chief by the army. Hannibal was also related by marriage to the Iberians through a princess of Cástulo, a town in the province of Jaén.
220 B.C. Hannibal captures the Vaccean cities of Helmantica (Salamanca) and Arbucala (Zamora).
219 B.C. Hannibal defeats a combined force of Vaccaei, Olcades and Carpetani, thus completing his conquest of Hispania south of the Ebro with the exception of Saguntum. Beginning of the siege of Sagunto. The city calls for Roman aid and the Roman Senate sends envoys to declare the city under Roman protection, which is disregarded by Hannibal. Hannibal sacks Saguntum, Sagunto.
218 B.C. March El senado romano asignó por primera vez Hispania como provincia, en esta ocasión a uno de los cónsules, P. Cornelio Escipión, para tratar con Aníbal, cuya conquista de la ciudad íbera de Sagunto suponía una amenaza en unión con los galos del sur de Francia y norte de Italia.
218 B.C. Beginning of the Second Punic War between Carthage and Rome.
Los romanos desembarcan en Ampurias para cortar el suministro de recursos que desde la península abastecía al ejército de Aníbal. Scipio and the Roman army winter at Tarraco.
A Roman army under Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus defeat an outnumbered Carthaginian army near Cissa,thus gaining control of the territory north of the Ebro River that Hannibal had just subdued a few months prior in the summer. This is the first battle the Romans ever fought in Iberia.
217 B.C. Hasdrubal Barca launches a joint expedition to destroy the Roman base north of the Ebro River (Battle of the Ebro River), but is defeated after a surprise attack by the Roman ships, who completely annihilate the Carthaginian naval contingent.
After the battle of Ebro River, Hasdrubal dismisses the Iberian crews, sparking a rebellion in the Trudetani tribe.
Fall. During the fall, Publius Cornelius Scipio joins his brother Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, reinforcing the Roman troops.
216 B.C. The Scipio brothers raid Carthaginian possessions in Iberia and Balearic Islands and recruit auxiliary troops from Iberian tribes, consolidated their hold north of the Ebro River. They also encourage Iberian tribes friendly with the Romans to raid tribes loyal to Carthage beyond the Ebro. Hasdrubal spends the year in subduing the Iberian tribes.
215 B.C. The Scipios defeat Hasdrubal in the Battle of Dertosa.
The Romans retake Saguntum and go deeper into Iberia.
212 B.C. The Romans and their Edetani allies invade Turboletania, seize the capital Turba (Teruel?) and raze it to the ground, selling the residents to slavery.
211 B.C. Large Carthaginian counter-offensive led by Hasdrubal Barca, his brother Mago Barca and Hasdrubal Gisco. Publius Cornelius Scipio and his brother Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus are killed in the Battles of the Upper Baetis. Carthaginian victory.
210 B.C. Arrival of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, the son of Publius Scipio, with 10,000 Roman troops in Iberia.
209 B.C. Publius Cornelius Scipio captures Nova Cartago, Cartagena. Envió por un lado a su amigo C. Lelio con la armada y él se fue con el ejército para llegar al mismo tiempo a Cartago Nova. Allí, tras la victoria, se apoderaron de gran cantidad de dinero y pertrechos militares.
A su regreso a Tarragona Scipio se entrevistó con un caudillo español llamado Edescón, y poco después vinieron a su encuentro otros dos, Indíbil y Mandonio, de la importante tribu de los ilergetes, oriunda del valle bajo del Ebro. Le reconocieron en cierto sentido como su rey.
208 B.C. Batalla de Baecula. Baecula, posiblemente la actual Santo Tomé, in the Jaén province. Victoria romana; Asdrúbal vio mermadas sus fuerzas y le fue imposible marchar hacia Italia de inmediato. El ejército cartaginés, comandado por Asdrúbal Barca, y el ejército romano, a las órdenes de Publio Cornelius Scipio el Africano. La batalla supuso el primer enfrentamiento a gran escala de Escipión el Africano
After the battle, Hasdrubal lead his depleted army over the western passes of the Pyrenees into Gaul, and subsequently into Italy with a mostly Gallic force in an ill-fated attempt to join his brother Hannibal.
Scipio Africanus retires his army to Tarraco, and manages to secure alliances with most of the native Iberian tribes, who switch side after the recent Roman successes.
207 B.C. Carthaginian reinforcements land in Iberia under Hanno, who soon joins Mago Barca. Together they raise a powerful army by heavy recruiting of Celtiberians.
Hasdrubal Gisco advances his army from Gades into Andalusia.
Scipio Africanus sends a detachment under Silanus to strike Mago first. Achieving complete surprise, Silanus falls on the Carthaginian camps, dispersing Mago’s Celtiberians and capturing Hanno.
206 B.C. Battle of Ilipa (near Seville, in Alcalá del Río) between Roman legions, commanded by Scipio Africanus, and Carthaginian armies, commanded by Hasdrubal Gisco and Mago. Roman victory. Los cartagineses evacuaron Cádiz y abandonaron España a los romanos.
Escipión funda Itálica para dar cobijo a sus soldados heridos.
El Senado de Roma recibe a una legación de hijos de soldados romanos con mujeres nativas de Hispania. Éstos no podían ser considerados ciudadanos, no obstante, solicitaban al Senado una ciudad en la que establecerse. Ellos, junto con algunos nativos constituirían una nueva colonia de latinos y libertos en Carteya, justo al oeste de Gibraltar. Sería una colonia latina, es decir, sin derechos de ciudadanía, aunque provista de conubium -derecho al matrimonio mixto- y el commercium -derecho a la compra-venta de artículos en pie de igualdad con los romanos.
Gadir surrenders without a fight to the Romans. Expulsión definitiva de los cartagineses.
205 B.C. Gran sublevación íbera dirigida por Indíbil y Mandonio, caudillos de los ilergetes, que habitaban la zona cenrtal del valle del Ebro, y en ella participaron también los ausetanos de la comarca situada a espaldas de Emporión (Ampurias).
The exhausted Turboletae sue for peace, on which the Roman Senate forces them to pay a huge compensation to the surviving citizens of Saguntum.
202 B.C. End of the Second Punic War with the defeat of Hannibal Barca in the Battle of Zama in North Africa.
200 B.C. The Latin poet Quintus Ennius records, for the first time, the use of the word Hispania to designate the Iberian peninsula (from the Carthaginian name).
197 B.C. Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus and M. Helvius divide the peninsula into Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Citerior (the one actually controlled by Rome). These two provinces are to be ruled by Governors with a mandate of one year.
The Turdetani rise against their Roman governor.
196 B.C. The Tuboletae revolt is crushed by Q. Minucius, Praetor of Hispania Citerior, in a pitched battle near the ruins of Turba (Teruel?). Their devastated lands are divided among the Bastetani and Edetani resulting in their total disappearance.
195 B.C. Cato the Elder becomes consul, assuming the command of the whole of Hispania. Cato first put down the rebellion in the northeast, then march south and put down the revolt by the Turdetani.
193 B.C. Consul Marco Fulvio Flaco defeats a coalition of Vacceos, Vettones and Lusones near Toletum (Toledo). The rebelling forces take refuge in the Lusone city of Contrebia Belaisca, which is taken by the consul.
The Lusitanians start fighting the Romans.
181 B.C. The Belli are forced to accept roman suzerainty by Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus.
Several tribes along the Ebro, especially the Lusones, rebel against Roman rule. in search of land on which to live. Beginning of the First Celtiberian War.
180 B.C. Campaña de Tiberio Graco contra los Iberians, sobre todo los Arévacos de Numancia.
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, proconsul of Hispania Citerior, frees the city of Caravis (Magallón), a roman ally, from the Celtiberians.
Gracchus conquers Contrebia and the vicinities, dividing this region with the indigenous roman allies and founding Gracurris (Alfaro) for the dispossessed Celtiberians.
179 B.C. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus defeats the Celtiberian coalition in the battle of Moncayo and founds Graccurris (Alfaro), ending the 1st Celtiberian War.
155 B.C. The Lusitanians and Vettones reach Gibraltar. There they are defeated by the Praetor Lucius Mummius. Beginning of the Lusitanian War.
154 B.C. Lusitanians, under Cesarus, pillage through Baetica.
154 B.C. Rome forbid the enlargement of the fortification of Segeda, capital of the Belli (probablemente Belmonte de Perejil, a unos 12 kms. Al sureste de Calatayud). However, the Belli continue the enlargement. Beginning of the 2nd Celtiberian War.
153 B.C. With the advance of the roman legions led by the Consul Quintus Fulvius Nobilior, the inhabitants of Segeda take refuge in Numancia, a city of the Arevaci tribe. (Beginning of the Numantia War). Nobilior destroys the city of Segeda, takes Ocilis (Medinaceli), but is ambushed by the Belli General Caros, leader of the Celtiberian coalition, at the battle of Ribarroya, at the Baldano river valley.
Nobilior arrives at the city of Numantia, where he spent the winter without taking it.
152 B.C. Claudio Marcelo funda Corduba -la actual Córdoba, en el sitio donde pasa el invierno.
Marcus Claudius Marcellus replaces Nobilior as Consul and takes the Celtiberian cities of Ocilis and Nertobriga. Entrapped, the Numantines surrender. End of the 2nd Celtiberian war.
150 B.C. The Lusitanians defeated by Praetor Servius Galba and Licinio Luculo. Springing a clever trap, he killed 9,000 Lusitanians and later sold 20,000 more as slaves in Gaul.
147 B.C. Viriathus is acclaimed leader of the Lusitanians after destroying and killing Vetilio, praetor of the Ulterior. Luego condujo a sus guerreros al saqueo de las opulentas ciudades béticas.
143 B.C. Viriathus forms a league against Rome with several Celtiberian tribes. The Arevaci are one of these tribes, beginning the second phase of the Numantine War.
The governor Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus attacks the territory of the Vettones, but is not able to take the cities of Numancia and Termancia.
142 B.C. Fabius Servilianus, new Consul of Hispania Ulterior, after having sacked several cities loyal to Viriathus in Baetica and southern Lusitania, is defeated by the Lusitanians in Erisane (in Baetica).
141 B.C. After suffering severe defeats, the general Quintus Pompeius secretly negotiates a peace with the city of Numancia.
140 B.C. Servilius Cipianus, with the aid of Marcus Popillius Laenas' armies, severely defeat the Lusitanians and oblige Viriathus to take refuge north of the Tagus river.
140 B.C. Servilius Cipianus armies attack the Vettones and the Gallaecians.
139 B.C. Viriathus sends emissaries to negotiate the peace with Servilius Cipianus, but is betrayed and killed in his sleep by his companions, Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus, bribed by Marcus Popillius Laenas. However, when Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus returned to receive their reward by the Romans, the Consul Servilius Caepio ordered their execution, declaring, "Rome does not pay traitors".
Lusitanian armies, now led by Tautalus, still tries a southern incursion against the Romans, but are defeated. End of the Lusitanian War.
138 B.C. The city of Olissipo (modern Lisbon) sends men to fight alongside the Roman legions against the Celtic tribes of the Northwest.
The general Marcus Popillius Laenas doesn't recognize the peace treaty of 141 BC signed between Quintus Pompeius and the Arevaci, beginning the final phase of the Numantine War.
137 B.C. When a battered roman army under Consul Gaius Hostilius Mancinus was besieging Numantia in 137 BC, the rumor of the approach of a large combined Cantabri-Vaccaei relief force was enough to cause the rout of 20,000 panic-stricken roman legionaries, forcing Mancinus to surrender under humiliating peace terms.
136 B.C. Decimus Junius Brutus lays siege and conquers the city of Talabriga, thus defeating the Gallaecians. After the military campaigns, the Roman legions depart south and leave no garrisons.
134 B.C. The Consul Scipio Aemilianus is sent to Hispania Citerior to end the war against the city of Numancia.
133 B.C. Scipio Aemilianus builds a ring of seven fortresses around Numancia itself before beginning the siege proper. After suffering pestilence and famine, most of the surviving Numantines commit suicide rather than surrender to Rome. End of the Numantine War and the Celtiberian Wars.
123 B.C. The Balearic Islands are conquered by Q. Caecilius Metellus. He settles 3,000 Roman and Spanish colonists on the island of Mallorca, founding the cities of Palma and Pollentia.
105 B.C. 105 B.C.-102 B.C. After the Battle of Arausio, the Germanic Teutons and Cimbri plunder through all north Iberia as far as Gallaecia.
102 B.C. The Germanic Teutons and Cimbri move out of Iberia to attack the Romans in their native territory in Gaul, where they are defeated in the battles of Aquae Sextiae and Vercellae.
89 B.C. El cónsul Pompeyo Estrabón concedió el privilegio de la ciudadanía romana a un grupo de hispanos que habían servido a sus órdenes en la guerra en un destacamento de caballería. La mayoría de ellos tienen nombre ibéricos, pero 3 de ellos, originarios de Ilerda -Lérida, llevan nombres romanos, aunque los de sus padres son autóctonos, lo cual demuestra hasta qué punto las costumbres romanas estaban infiltrándose en las ciudades no romanas.
83 B.C. Sertorio llega a Hispania Citerior e inmediatamente ésta se vio envuelta en la guerra civil romana hasta la fecha del asesinato de César en 44 a.C.
81 B.C. Generalized Roman Republican Civil war in all of Iberia. Sertorius, representing Marius, fights the Sulla party, and is joined by the Lusitanians.
Sertorio fue obligado a abandonar la península por C. Annio, enviado a sustituirle por el gobierno silano de Roma. Se retiró entonces a África desde donde fue llamado por los lusitanos, que le pidieron que fuera su caudillo. Dio así comienzo en España una guerra entre Sertorio, apoyado por sus aliados hispanos, y las nuevas autoridades nombradas oficialmente por Roma, que habría de durar hasta su muerte casi ocho años después.
80 B.C. Battle of the Baetis River, where rebel forces under Quintus Sertorius defeat the legal Roman forces of Lucius Fulfidias, governor of Hispania Ulterior.
77 B.C. Quintus Sertorius defeats the generals Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius at the Battle of Saguntum. In this period Quintus Sertorius, through pacts of hospitality and clientele, establishes strong solidarity with local indigenous populations.
76 B.C. Roman general Sertorius proceeds into northern Celtiberia fighting against Berones (a Celtic tribe) and Autrigones (pre-Indoeuropean tribe).
Quintus Sertorius defeats Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus near the Pyrenees.
75 B.C. Battle of the Sucro where Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Lucius Afranius defeat Quintus Sertorius.
74 B.C. Pompeius founds the city of Pompaelo (modern Pamplona) after being camped in the region. Beginning of the romanization of the Vascones.
73 B.C. Quintus Sertorius loses all the region of Celtiberia (north central Iberia).
Pompey and Quintus Cecilius Metellus Pius conquer the Turmodigi and include their lands, corresponding today to the central and western Burgos province and the eastern Palencia province, in Hispania Citerior.
73 B.C. Quintus Sertorius is assassinated at a banquet.
61 B.C. Julius Caesar is assigned to serve as the Propraetor governor of Hispania Ulterior.
60 B.C. Julius Caesar wins considerable victories over the Gallaecians and Lusitanians. During one of his victories, his men hail him as Imperator in the field.
56 B.C. A joint uprising of the Turmodigi, Vaccaei and other people is defeated by the Praetor Metellus Nepote.
The Cantabri unsuccessfully intervened in the Gallic Wars by sending an army to help the Aquitani tribes of south-eastern Gaul against Julius Caesar’s Legate Publius Crassus.
55 B.C Siendo cónsul Pompeyo, éste obtiene el mando de toda Hispania por cinco años. Actuará en absentia a través de sus legados
49 B.C. The Roman Senate declare Julius Caesar a Public Enemy, beginning the Great Roman Civil War.
Julius Caesar enters in Hispania and defeats the legions of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus' legates, Marcus Terentius Varro, Marcus Petreius and Lucius Afranius, in the battle of Ilerda.
Parece que en este año Julio César, estando en Gades, concedió la ciudadanía romana a los habitantes de Gades (Cádiz). En los seis años siguientes la ciudad alcanzó el estatus de municipium.
Gaius Cassius Longinus, legate of Caesar, is left in Hispania facing growing difficulties in maintaining local populations obedient to Rome.
46 B.C. Pompey's sons Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompeius, together with Titus Labienus, escape to Hispania, where they continue to resist Caesar's dominance of the Roman world.
46 B.C. Nov. Julius Caesar arrives in Hispania.
46 B.C. Nov. Octavianus and Agrippa join Julius Caesar in Hispania, where the Civil War continues.
45 B.C. Sextus Pompeius, departing from his garrison at Corduba (in Baetica), roams Hispania Ulterior fighting against its governor (appointed by Julius Caesar), before fleeing for Sicily. End of the Roman Civil War.
Julius Caesar, before going back to Rome, leaves his legate governors with the mission of pacifying Hispania and punish the local tribes for their disloyalty.
The Greek cities of Emporion (Ampurias) and Rhode lose their autonomy as punishment of their support to the Pompeian party.
45 B.C. June Battle of Munda, in southern Hispania, where, in his last victory, Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompeius.
César abandonó España habiendo tardado siete meses en poner fin a la guerra contra los hijos de Pompeyo, aunque quedaba en libertad Sexto Pompeyo.
44 B.C March 15 Asesinato de César en Roma.
39 B.C. Fue enviado a la península Domicio Calvino, quien derrotó a la tribu denominada de los cerretanos, situados al norte, cerca de los Pirineos.
29 B.C. Statilius Taurus makes the first important Roman intervention against the tribes of the Northern Meseta, beginning the Cantabrian Wars. El emperador Octavio se traslada a la península personalmente.
27 B.C. The emperor Augustus returns to Hispania and makes a new administrative division, leaving the provinces as follows: Provincia Hispania Ulterior Baetica (Hispania Baetica), whose capital is Corduba (presently Córdoba); Provincia Hispania Ulterior Lusitania, whose capital is Emerita Augusta (now Mérida); Provincia Hispania Citerior, whose capital is Tarraco (Tarragona), later known as Tarraconensis.
26 B.C. The Emperor Caesar Augustus, establishes his base in Segisama (near Burgos), beginning a major campaign against the Cantabrians.
25 B.C. The Roman general Carisius attacks the Astur armies, pursuing them to Mons Medullius. The Roman legions besiege this mountain, but the Astur soldiers prefer to commit suicide rather than surrender.
25 B.C. Al final de las campañas de 26 y 25 a.C. Augusto licenció a sus soldados más veteranos y fundó para ellos una ciudad llamada Augusta Emérita (Mérida).
20 B.C. Slave revolt of the Cantabri that spread to neighboring Asturias.
19 B.C. The Astures and Cantabri surrender to Agripa, ending the Cantabrian Wars. Mató a todos los guerreros y obligó a los demás a abandonar sus asentamientos en las montañas y a instalarse en los valles, mucho más fáciles de controlar.
17 B.C. Emperor Augustus reorganizes the Hispanic provinces, transferring the Galician, Asturian and Cantabrian territories from the province of Lusitania to the province of Hispania Citerior Tarraconensis.
8 o 7 B.C. Concluyen las obras del anfiteatro de Mérida.

"Es cierto que el Romano es libre de hacer todo lo que quiera. Pero también lo es que tiene que soportar las consecuencias de sus actos. No importa que se haya equivocado, que le hayan engañado o incluso forzado: un hombre no se deja forzar: etiamsi coactus, attamen voluit. Es libre; pero si distraído, imprudente o atontado, prometió pagar una determinada cantidad y no puede pagarla, se convierte en esclavo de su acreedor."

Rudolph von Ihering

“Slavery, protection, and monopoly find defenders, not only in those who profit by them, but in those who suffer by them.”

Frédéric Bastiat

On the true nature of the Castro Revolution in Cuba: "The revolution was a cover for committing atrocities without the slightest vestige of guilt ... we were young and irresponsible. We were pirates. We formed our own caste ... we belonged to and believed in nothing -no religion, no flag, no morality or principle. It's fortunate we didn't win, because if we had, we would have drowned the continent in barbarism."

Jorge Masetti -In the Pirate's Den

La anarquía, es decir, la ausencia de fuerza estatal, no es una forma de Estado, y cualquiera que acabe con ella por el medio que sea, el usurpador nacional o el conquistador extranjero, rinde un servicio a la sociedad. Es un salvador, un bienhechor, porque la forma más insoportable de Estado es la ausencia de Estado.


Rudolph von Ihering

"El envidioso está afligido no solo por sus males propios, sino por los bienes de los demás."  -Hipias

[la norma de conducta de los progres] "No hacer nada que alguien pueda envidiarme." -Hipasos

NINOTCHKA,

O EL DISCRETO DESENCANTO CON EL SOCIALISMO 

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Seguimos a la espera de la reedición de este importante libro del gran escritor español José Pla

Historia de la Segunda República.

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También a la espera de este importante libro del genial Rafael Abella.

Finales de enero, 1939, Barcelona cambia de piel

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2012 © CREOWEBS. Diseñamos y creamos. !!!